Tips Menguasai 16 Tenses Bahasa Inggris

Apakah kamu bingung dengan Tata Bahasa Bahasa Inggris (English Grammar), terutama dengan Tenses Bahasa Inggris (English Tenses)???

Bagi kita yang bukan penutur asli Bahasa Inggris, memang ke-16 tenses Bahasa Inggris dapat menjadi hal yang sulit untuk dipahami. Ada banyak peraturan dan juga pengecualian dalam tenses Bahasa Inggris. Namun, bukan berarti kita tak dapat menguasainya! Berikut adalah rangkuman dari ke-16 Tenses Bahasa Inggris dan tips untuk menguasainya.

 

tenses1 Simple Present Tense

Simple present tense adalah bentuk tense yang paling umum digunakan. Bentuk ini biasanya digunakan untuk menunjukan fakta, kebiasaan, dan kejadian yang terjadi pada saat ini.

Rumus Kata Sinyal Kalimat Positif Kalimat Negatif Kalimat Tanya
Subject + Verb 1 (present form) always, every, never, normally, often, sometimes, usually, seldom He always works very hard in the company He does not work very hard in the company. Does he work very hard in the company?
Yes, he does. / No, he does not.

 

tenses2 Present Continuous Tense

Present continuous tense biasanya digunakan untuk membicarakan aksi yang sedang berlangsung saat pembicaraan sedang berlangsung atau bisa juga digunakan untuk rencana di masa depan.

Pattern Signal Words Affirmative Negative Question
Subject + am/is/are + Verb -ing (continuous form) at the moment, just now, now, right now, Listen!, Look! Look! He is talking with his classmates. He is not playing computer games now. Is he playing computer games at the moment?
Yes, he is. /      No, he is not.

 

tenses1 Present Perfect Tense

Present perfect tense menekankan pada hasil. Tense ini menunjukkan aksi yang masih sedang berlangsung atau baru saja selesai.

Pattern Signal Words Affirmative Negative Question
Subject + has/have+ Verb III (past participle form) already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now He has already finished his homework. He has not been to Australia so far. Has he completed the arrangement for the coming event up to now?
Yes, he has. /    No, he has not.

 

tenses2 Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Present perfect continuous tense digunakan untuk  mengungkapkan aksi yang telah selesai pada suatu titik dimasa lampau atau aksi telah dimulai di masa lalu dan terus berlanjut sampai sekarang. Biasanya aksi tersebut ada durasi waktu tertentu dan ada relevansinya dengan kondisi sekarang.

Pattern Signal Words Affirmative Negative Question
Subject + HAS/HAVE + BEEN + Verb -ing (continuous form) for the past 5 years, how long …?, the whole week, since xxxx He has been working here since 1996. He has not been speaking for the last 3 hours. Has he been playing the computer game all day?
Yes, he has. /   No, he has not.

 

tenses1 Simple Past Tense

Simple past tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu kejadian yang terjadi di masa lampau.

Pattern Signal Words Affirmative Negative Question
Subject + Verb II (past form) yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1996, last Thursday, this morning Last year, he always worked into night. He did not go to school this morning. Did he pay the bill yesterday? Yes, he did. /    No, he did not.

 

tenses2 Past Continuous Tense

Past continuous tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan bahwa suatu aksi sedang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau. Biasanya ada dua kejadian di masa lampau dan satu kejadian menginterupsi kejadian yang lain.Kejadian yang sedang diinterupsi tersebut yang menggunakan past continuous tense.

Pattern Signal Words Affirmative Negative Question
Subject + WAS/WERE + Verb -ing (continuous form) when, while, as long as, at this time yesterday He was speaking when I entered in room. He was not doing his homework at this time yesterday. Was he writing the letter to his parents when I was out last Tuesday?
Yes, he was. / No, he was not.

 

tenses1 Past Perfect Tense

Past perfect tense digunakan untuk menunjukkan sebuah kejadian yang terjadi sebelum waktu tertentu di masa lampau dan lebih menekankan pada fakta daripada durasi.

Pattern Signal Words Affirmative Negative Question
Subject + HAD + Verb III (past participle form) before yesterday, till three days ago, already, until that day He had finished his designs before he went to work yesterday. He had not been a high school student until last year. Had he entered the company before he achieved his master degree in 1990?
Yes, he had. /   No, he had not.

 

tenses2 Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past perfect continuous tense hampir serupa dengan past perfect tense. Digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu aksi yang terjadi di masa lalu dan telah selesai pada suatu titik waktu tertentu di masa lalu, tapi tense ini menekankan pada durasi kejadiannya.

Pattern Signal Words Affirmative Negative Question
Subject + HAD + BEEN + Verb -ing (continuous form) for, since, the whole day, all day He said that he had been working here for ten years. He was told that his teacher had been waiting for him since 2 p.m yesterday. Had he been speaking for the whole class before I entered?
Yes, he had. / No, he had not.

 

tenses1 Simple Future Tense

Simple Future tense mengindikasikan suatu aksi di masa yang akan datang dan tidak dapat dipengaruhi. Dapat juga digunakan untuk pembuatan keputusan di masa depan yang spontan atau asumsi yang berhubungan dengan masa yang akan datang. “Will” dan “be going to” merupakan 2 indikator umum pada tenses ini.

Pattern Signal Words Affirmative Negative Question
Subject + “WILL/ BE GOING TO” + Verb (present form) in a year, next …, tomorrow, next week, five days later He is going to be journalist after he graduate next year. He will not play computer games anymore because he understand how harmful they are. Will he go to the cinema tomorrow with us?
Yes, he will. / No, he will not.

 

tenses2 Future Continuous Tense

Future continuous tense menunjukkan aksi yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang dan aksi yang pasti akan terjadi dalam waktu dekat.

Pattern Signal Words Affirmative Negative Question
Subject + “WILL/BE GOING TO” + “BE” + Verb (continuous form) tomorrow morning, in one year He will be delivering the speech to undergraduates at 3 p.m tomorrow afternoon. He will not be doing the task in the office this afternoon because he is sick. Will he be playing football next morning in the playground?         Yes, he will./     No, he will not.

 

tenses1 Future Perfect Tense

Future perfect tense menekankan pada aksi yang akan berakhir pada waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang.

Pattern Signal Words Affirmative Negative Question
Subject + “WILL HAVE” + Verb II (past participle form) by next Monday, in a week He will have finished the task by next Monday. He will not have finished the given task by tomorrow evening. Will he have finished the task in a week?          Yes, he will./    No, he will not.

 

tenses2 Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Hampir sama dengan semua jenis perfect continuous tense, future perfect continuous tense  merupakan serangkaian aksi yang terjadi  sebelum waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang.

Pattern Signal Words Affirmative Negative Question
Subject + “WILL HAVE BEEN” + Verb III (past participle form) for the last couple of hours, all day long He will have been taking charge of the team for the next hour. He will not have been doing the task for the last couple of hours. Will he have been doing the research all day long?              Yes, he will./    No, he will not.

 

tenses1 Past Future Tense

Past future tense pada dasarnya digunakan dalam kalimat yang tidak langsung, dimana terdapat perubahan bentuk untuk menyesuaikan dengan rangkaian peristiwa yang ada.

Pattern Signal Words Affirmative Negative Question
Subject + “SHOULD/WOULD” + Verb (present form) He said that he would leave in three days. He did not promise that he would buy you a new computer. Did you tell him when I would arrive?              Yes, I did. /    No, I did not.

 

tenses2 Past Future Continuous Tense

Past future continuous tense menekankan pada serangkaian atau durasi sebuah aksi terjadi.   Sebagai tambahan, ini juga biasanya digunakan pada kalimat tidak langsung.

Pattern Signal Words Affirmative Negative Question
Subject + “SHOULD/WOULD BE” + Verb (continuous form) I made a promise that I would be doing my homework all day long tomorrow. I did not tell anyone that I would be giving a speech to undergraduates for the next whole morning. Did you say that you would be working hard in the next week?   Yes, I did /        No, I did not.

 

tenses1 Past Future Perfect Tense

Terdapat 3 waktu dalam past future perfect yang terjadi di masa lalu. Menunjuk pada waktu yang akan datang, waktu tertentu di masa lalu, tetapi aksi yang terjadi harus sudah selesai sebelum waktu yang akan datang. Dan biasanya digunakan pada kalimat tidak langsung.

Pattern Signal Words Affirmative Negative Question
Subject + “SHOULD/WOULD HAVE BEEN” + Verb III (past participle form) He told the students that they should have finished the homework this morning. He said that he would not have made such a mistake if he had taken my advice. Did you say that you would have been a doctor in three years?
Yes, I did /         No, I did not.

 

tenses2 Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Past future perfect continuous tense merupakan bentuk tense yang cukup sulit. Namun, kamu dapat mempelajarinya dari past future perfect tense. Bedanya, past future perfect tense menekankan pada durasi waktu yang sudah berlalu dan hasil.

Pattern Signal Words Affirmative Negative Question
Subject + “SHOULD/WOULD HAVE BEEN” + Verb (continuous form) I heard that you should have been teaching here for ten years by this July. I did not know that he would have been working for the past three hours by that time. Would he have been explaining to the workers if he had made the information clear?
Yes, he would / No, he would not.

https://www.ef.co.id/englishfirst/efblog/grammar-and-vocab/tips-tata-bahasa/tips-menguasai-16-tenses-bahasa-inggris/

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